festival fans define Festivillians

Let & # 39; It defines the word Festivillian. It has been used as a term describing the festival musicians, artists, promoters, organizers, and fans had been for years. It refers to people that you really have a passion or will participate in art, music, and especially the Renaissance Festival. Often in the history of words used in social and urban cool for a while before it becomes widespread, and defined in the dictionary term. This situation Festivillian.

The first mention of a music festival originated from the Pythian Games in ancient Greece around 582 BC. At the time, the history of the administration of the Delphic Games was handed over to Amphiktyonia, the council of the twelve Greek tribes, in order to put an end to the holy war in the past. The games are often included musical performances. This may be the earliest historical mention of the Festival.

Initially the words Feast and Festival interchangeable and utilize in honor of the gods. Through the ages, each term considered & # 39; and its meaning in society, however, represents both a celebration.

music festivals are usually a year, although many are organized as a single event. There are those that are purely entertainment and profit, and those that are designed to do more than entertain. There was a further rise in the past few decades, the correlation between the various music festivals and environmental awareness. Many festival today with a green theme at some level. Some, such as the Shakori Hills Music Festival, a sustainable village and offer classes and workshops on sustainable living. The Green Apple Festival 2008, held on Earth Day, was the first to & # 39; a kind of co-ordinating a number of major US cities offer music festivals and fairs in unison green living across the nation and even saw international participation.

Another interesting Music Festival is to educate and support type. Some communities free or nearly free music festivals in the end, that the young musicians, the audience and the opportunity to play music and to learn from experienced and established peers. An excellent example is the Alaska Folk Festival in Juneau. In spring 2008, it was the 34th annual festival!

There is something unique that we feel the festival atmosphere. It feels as if there's a little magic in the air. There is a spirit of friendship, freedom, peace and camaraderie that are present in most Festivillians which separates and creates the atmosphere of a summer camp. Even casual festival goers or patrons seem to pick up on it. Eye Contact "strangers" is easier, people smile at each other and strike conversations instantly. Something festival seems to bring down the barriers and lift the community spirit. Maybe a Festivillian best defined as a person to flourish in such an environment.

Festivillian.com offers easy access to resources tickets, camping / hiking, Festival Gear, Memorabilia, and more easily price comparisons RV and motorhome && # 39; s. As this site grows, as with all things, time will flower and offered him the & # 39; users and much more. Please feel free to share, bookmark or link it. Suggestions are welcome (contact form coming soon), and you too!

Source by Lori Chambers

Five Advantages of Owning a Home Green

green homes houses, weekend, or any other apartment buildings are designed to minimize the negative impact on the environment. If you decide to buy a green home, you will enjoy many benefits in addition to harmful environmental damage. Let & # 39; s look at the five major benefits of owning such a home.

1. Encourages Eco-friendly Living

The construction of a green home is achieved by adopting green principles, such as energy-efficient systems, water and waste management, and so on. Structure and functioning of these homes much depends on recycling and reuse of waste materials. In addition, emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), these homes are much lower. The overall footprint of the remaining green homes are smaller than other conventional homes.

2. Improves indoor air quality

used to paint green homes low or zero volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOC paints emit toxic solvent which when inhaled by humans, can cause dizziness, headaches.

Green homes use raw materials that are less harmful to the overall well-being of the residents. These improved ventilation is provided. As a result, indoor air quality is much better. Of course, such people's homes are less prone to respiratory or autoimmune diseases.

3. It provides a number of tax and credit benefits

Some banks, such as the National Housing Bank (MNB) and the State Bank of India ( SBI) tie-ups with the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). The discounts they offer home loan processing fees and interest rates certified by IGBC Green Homes.

The Maharashtra government offer up to 5-10% discount in property tax certified homes. This refund is on the verge of being introduced in other states as well, and soon became the main source of return.

4. Reduce maintenance and operating costs

Green homes will help you save on your monthly electricity and water bills. A number of new, innovative ideas, such as rainwater harvesting and home insulation, which features these homes, help achieve energy efficiency. For example, these apartments is certainly a cool summer months using reflective paint on the roof. This reduces air conditioners or refrigerators.

The technology used for the construction of green homes is simple and basic. The use of materials and equipment are long lasting and require no regular maintenance. In this way, home owners save a lot of maintenance invoices.

5. High Resale Value

Green homes in the future of the property. They & # 39; ll be sold at a high market value, as more and more homebuyers turn to India's green lifestyle. Future homebuyers want to invest in property that is healthy for passengers and the environment, as well as low maintenance costs. Therefore, investing in such a home will bring you good value for your money in the future.

Source by Karan Kamble

The advantages and disadvantages Green Power Energy Resources

There are hardly any people who have not thought of, or to be able to change to a green energy home. It allows logic to stop and reflect on the advantages and disadvantages of green power and other energy sources as they explore the advantages and disadvantages.

First of all, think about the area. Changing and moving green solar energy green power conservative distinct advantage when you consider the atmosphere. First, based on the impact of ecological benefits to the world. Human beings are now a vast amount of the world & # 39; s natural energy sources such as natural gas and coal as we work, live and run our lives. We rely heavily on non-renewable fossil fuels that the Earth has a lot of years to come up. Human beings will not be able to refill these natural energy sources. This fact can only be seen as a huge pro to solar energy and green energy.

Solar Energy will receive the foundation of the day. The reason is that the sun radiates power goes on billions or millions of years, the emissions are well thought out to be a renewable reserves. The sun is a genuine star during our entire solar system and life expectancy of the solar vague in terms of human well-being. Fuel funds, such as oil and coal is a fairly accurate date of exhaustion 70 years.

There is a drawback when considering solar systems in the house. The downside of the preliminary cost of purchasing and fixing the solar system. Now that you have the disadvantage to be out of sight & # 39; and us to get back the benefits. The savings that one might be taking advantage of solar energy is extraordinary. You may have to pay in the years prior instillation may prevent you fall in the dollar. That depends on how much energy the house uses, you may not have to pay energy bills, or a very small amount given the power company. Also, if you produce more energy than they use, the power company will pay you the power given to them by you.

When weighing the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy is important to reveal some of the down sides is the basis of power. There is a need to have a large enough area of ​​solar panels that can be adjusted to be not enough power is generated. If the house is a top, then fitted; However, a public housing resident is not able to produce enough solar panels to create a solar power system, if they can use the entire roof. Bad weather and pollution affect the level of power produced. There will be no energy produced at night, so some kind of back-up power units will be needed.

Source by Lizaa Ray

Tractor integrity and gardens responsibly

I & # 39; ll be honest, I'm not a gardener. I trust the farmers that my vegetables and fruits. Having said this, I did a little research on various agricultural and horticultural methods and styles and amazed at what I learned. There have been some significant changes in the production of food for the past 40 years. Traditional farming pesticides, GMOs and long rows of vegetables to strip the soil of life is not the only tool for management. There's a new slant to farming, which encourages producers to use intuitive knowledge in order to host the best they can be.

According to Tasha Miles Grow Network "People & # 39; feel & # 39; that will help you understand this fact that some future outcome is called intuition in this intersection, I consciously know is unconscious for more details. you will not even know it, we have noticed, and the resulting products, how to use this information to "If this intuitive ability to gardening and growing number & # 39th; the-out-of-box & # 39; and other solutions solve the new problems will be discovered gardening. These changes are transforming the instinct inspired gardening is done and changes the food is grown. An administrator & # 39; and the ability to tune in to the needs of the plants, soil, insects and the environment can make a difference in maintaining a positive balance instead of depleting the earth world & # 39; s resources.

Still curious to know more about what & # 39; d researched, I sat down with my son Joel, who has a green thumb and a degree in horticulture, as well as years of experience working with a variety of organic, permaculture, and local economies. I asked Joel if the best system permaculture gardening, and he responded by saying that although the permaculture viable method of farming, it does not really feed a lot of people. He explained that the idea behind permaculture is designed to coordinate land and surface and at the same time to be of low impact. With this in mind permaculture farms often they feed the people who live and work on farms, although they are not designed for high yields.

The man who first devised the idea of ​​permaculture Bill Mollison probably had an intuitive flash in 1978, when he dreamed up this holistic form of farming. He wanted to keep the Earth & # 39; s resources rather than deplete them.

Another method of growing plants in organic farming. When I talked about Joel shook his head and went on to teach that although food can be labeled "organic" by the FDA, it can not really be completely organic. He said that as long as they do not use chemicals or GMOs cultivation of plants, the bio-economy. However, these plants can be labeled organic or natural fertilizers have been treated, including the bones of cows that were not integral or non-GMO. Although intuitively it just feels wrong to deceive consumers, the agricultural industry in the matter of ignorance buyers ignored this important detail. Joel said he was taking a lot of integrity and high ethical standards is completely organically grow crops at all levels. He suggested that it is useful to get to know the host. If you do not instinctively feel good about the host and practice, then I suggest you shop elsewhere.

Perhaps another solution might be all organic food plant in our yard and not have to deal with the farmers at all. However, after the experience of building a garden with my daughter, where hundreds of dollars spent on the terrace the land, prepare and enrich the soil, plant crops, installing irrigation, put up trellises and water the compost in the garden only a small return, I stayed in feeling like it's a waste of time and money. But again, I'm not a gardener. I humbly let the experts. I did not come up with an intuitive touch the plants and soil. Instead, I mechanically after gardening book & # 39; s account of building a backyard garden. I developed a deeper appreciation of insight and skill it takes to plant and harvest a healthy and productive garden or farm.

Because I am growing in my food, it is important to educate myself on the integrity of the various management practices and decide to buy fruits and vegetables, reliable source. Although there is no one right way to grow food, farming practices that work to maintain the environment, does not pollute the land in the most intuitive positive approaches to growing food. Hopefully, over time, more and more people will be directed to tune to the needs on the ground and find free farming methods that can sustain us in a healthy way, because after all we are all responsible for the planet and its ecosystem.

Source by Liah Howard

The term environmental benefits of the Automobile Recycling

Green living is an activity that contributes to minimize or remove the toxins in the environment and improve personal health and energy. There are many activities that have a positive impact on the environment, such as eating organically grown foods, choosing paper bags instead of plastic bags, recycling beer cans, installing environmentally friendly flooring for your home or driving a fuel-efficient car. A recently emerging trend of recycling cars to achieve a cleaner environment.

when most cars had outlived its usefulness, they are taken to recycling yards where cars are cut into pieces and residues (especially that of iron and steel), and then returned to the cars, appliances and other products. Cars that one of the most recycled products are made in the world as three out of four tons of new steel from recycled steel. Other car parts such as brake pads, shoes, oil filters, rubber gaskets polyurethane foam seat, seat covers, floor mats, wheel, windshield and side window glass is recycled into new cars.

Automobile Recycling confer numerous benefits to the environment. It helps to conserve natural resources and protect the environment from contamination recycling used parts. This reduces water and air pollution and saves landfill space. For example, the automobile recycling minimizes the need to process new materials, helping to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly sulfur dioxide, which is detrimental to the environment and human health.

Automobile recycling uses much less energy than required for automotive production. This in turn reduces the amount of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon compounds in the atmosphere and help save valuable reserve gas, coal and oil. Recycling vehicles and parts can save as much as 80 million barrels of oil and 40,000 tons of coal per year.

Automobile recycling helps to save energy than recycling one kilogram of steel saves enough energy for a 60-watt light bulb 85 hours. Recycling of automotive glass (windscreen and sunroof) reduces water pollution and air pollution by 45 percent to 25 percent. Metal Recycling can save up to 70 percent energy and 30 percent of water consumption. Recycling one ton of oil filters not only saves nine cubic meters of landfill space, but it also yields 1700 pounds of steel. Recycling oil filters help prevent petroleum products from contaminating water, air and soil. This will reduce about 75 percent of water pollution and air pollution by 80 percent. Recycling produces brake pads and shoes combination of synthetic materials and copper.

to check the recycling operations in order to reduce the risk of dismantling settlements in releasing harmful chemicals and toxic liquid oil into the environment Auto recyclers. Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, arsenic, mercury, aluminum and chrome can not be allowed to seep into the ground. Similarly, acids, solvents, degreasers and batteries should be disposed of properly, because they might interfere with the chemistry of the soil and the health threat to marine life and humans.

Source by Jhalak Paul

Why Going Green Recycling is important

As you become more aware of the negative impact on the environment and try to rectify their bad habits throughout the ages meaningless. This is due to the many organizations out there that we are fighting for the benefit of humanity and sustainable living. Recycling is one way that we can use to reduce the alarming rate at which the rise of global warming and depletion of the resources of the planet.

greening of all our activities is something you have to learn as we go for our daily tasks. Or should I say learn as we see that our ancestors did the right things regarding the care of the planet and its resources. Technological advances were killed and luxury definitely made global warming is increasing at an alarming rate. It's time to find a balance between luxury and sustainable living.

waste recycling and reuse items is a great way to help our planet. In the United States used to 88000000 tons of paper per year, which accounts for roughly a little less than half of the total amount of trash. reducing the use of paper will be good for the global forest cover and will reduce the total amount of garbage accumulated. Companies need to make a special effort in respect of all the paper they use in the office. communication and limiting the use of other methods of paper in cases where it is absolutely necessary, waste paper can be brought down drastically.

Recycling should start at home with you. If you put each on their part it will be an easy task. First, glass, plastic, paper and biodegradable waste must be separated if during disposal. This facilitates recycling. Little things like reusable grocery bags that doctors today many retailers to reduce paper waste and plastic waste is added. Recycling to come, and of course that is what our generation can give to these talent-the ability to think green all choices that are made every day.

Other areas include recycling water, which is fast becoming elusive commodity in many areas of the earth. Our ancestors used water in agriculture before allowing flow to the sea and we see many cultures flourished around large bodies of water. If we are able to re-water, it will be a greener place to live.

Another way that we can recycle by donating goods that they no longer need or have outgrown others that they can use them instead of purchasing new items. This greatly reduces the impact that has on the earth & # 39; s resources and support sustainable living. It also ensures that less trash in landfills, thus reducing global warming and toxic emissions that pollute the atmosphere. Recycling is definitely something that each and everyone should be aware of us, and easy to practice every day.

Source by Mel Sudby

Ten green strategies to further develop the Environment

If you think you need to join movements and lobby Congress, only one environmentalist, think again. There are many ways you can contribute to help the environment. The air is highly polluted, because the combustion emissions coming out of the car. The streams, rivers, oceans, and become polluted because of industrial waste producers that we patronize products; just carelessly throw them away later, when we & # 39; them. The land is almost exhausted, we can take it all and hardly gave anything back in order to ensure the sustainability

They all took part in destroying the Earth, and we all benefited. If the results of prior actions has created a monumental effect is to destroy the environment, it is possible that all of us can work together to restore the environment in which it used to be. Let's all "green", so we know the demand of manufacturers to produce environmentally friendly products that are not harmful wastes and emissions. Let & # 39; and all strategies to adapt to green living, because the Earth is now stifling of greenhouse gases and harmful waste. Checkout these green strategies, once you start in, you & # 39; ll find out that & # 39; It s not so difficult

1. Organize and participate in carpools if you & # 39; s not too far away, on foot right or pedal. We all need to reduce your gas money anyway, in ever-increasing costs. Organize a carpool, or if you & # 39; s is already a part of it. Fewer cars on the road on the way to the grocery store, shopping center or a school, burning less pollute the air and damage the ozone layer. With a little practice walking, jogging, or riding a bike to do some errands, you need to exercise more often.

2. Use natural or organic Pure Green household cleaning products needs. You can also use vinegar, baking soda and lemon juice, these are the same used by manufacturers of raw materials sans the harmful chemicals and less cost. There & # 39; s nothing wrong with going back to the basics, people are used to the old days and everything was spotlessly clean.

3. Feed and Groom Pet green Since the whole household "green" green pets are fed a natural and organic pet foods and grooming them "green" based shampoos, flea and tick repellents and other innovative green supplies.

4. Consider other ways to keep cool or hot to save energy and save money on energy during the summer. Sweating out a little bit not too bad for your health. Beat the heat by wearing light clothes and a cold drink plenty of fluids. Health advocates say, abundant water helps the body detox. During the winter, the package yourself enough warm clothes and heating gear conserve energy costs. Drink hot drinks to keep your body warm inside.

5. Patronize the local market patronizing the local market and commercial areas make the community self-sufficient. You & # 39; not only help the community grow, but & # 39; Furthermore, by reducing the cost of purchases. Put it in a community wish lists for products not available in the community, may make available to the local grocer or vendors. Thus, power and fuel for transportation will be limited to a few hand.

6. To maintain a proper waste management separation Biodegradables not from Biodegradables This simply means only those items that are recyclable non-recyclable. Raw materials include those which can be used for composting, while non-recyclable can be sold back to manufacturers, who are also into recycling.

7. Try to eliminate paper waste Try hold the transactions of electronic e-mails, e-banking, e-shopping, and most of the other activities that the paper which is now available on the internet. The recorded files instead of paper documents, flash drives maintain dust collection of files.

8. Insulation Conservation Consider the solar energy and heat transmission insulators. They are designed to reduce energy and to reduce demand for electricity. The less electricity to every household, the less likely the production of pollution-emitting power plants.

9. Go easy on meat demand Lessen meat and & # 39; ll reduce farm run-off carrying animal manure. In addition, less meat in our diet is not only healthy, it & # 39; And yet budget friendly.

10. Buy recycled again and you & # 39; s nothing reusing things wrong; the internet offers many ideas on how things can be new and reusable. If you can not recycle, buy recycled. You & # 39; You'll be surprised how imaginative and creative recycled things come along today.

works hand in hand with the community and maybe check with your local government to provide larger spaces, where trees can be planted to green the community. Trees provide you with protection from the scorching sun, and to the community with fresh oxygen to breathe.

Source by Ciel Cantoria

Greenhouse and its requirements – the relevance of environmental protection

If you look around seriously in a greenhouse, a lot of features, the house of your dreams environment should be a priority. The other aspect is just as important as the primary consideration of the characteristics that are essential to lower energy consumption and fuel a day.

The proposed home is located in a place where everything is essential for normal life is easy. You may be qualified as a green home than a home that is far and you have to drive around a lot of trivial things. so travel is not considered to be in need of green house home, even if the atmosphere is the atmosphere is very environmentally friendly. This is because of the simple reason that it was spending more time and money than the fuel costs.

Many people dream of self-sufficiency for a green home. Self-manufactured enough food for a normal family, a well-maintained garden, solar power, and wind / water mill of the compound.

Both of these conditions suggested there is a common point. They do not need the support of the local network is fully or partially. Apparent contribution to the environment is evident that this is not part of high energy consumption.

If the search has landed you in a place where there is a well-located facility, but instead many self catering establishments will need a well-designed home of concentration. The design should be such that the place cool in summer and warm in winter and the minimum need for air conditioning and heating.

In addition to these types of ecologically sound design, proven energy devices, it significantly contributes to saving energy. But for many, the initial investment is priceless, and it will pay off handsomely in the near future.

The receiving a green home is not the only way to help the environment. We need to stick to products which cause less harm to the environment during production. Furthermore, we can insist on the use of products that are biodegradable cleaning purposes, etc.

We will also contribute significantly to the environment. So a part of the elite, who are hell bent on creating a healthy environment for self and future generations.

Source by William Suburn

What are the Characteristics of a sustainable community?


Environmental preservation is important lifestyle there is a growing population. There are those who are committed to green living to such an extent that they themselves live in sustainable communities. These populaces come together with a common goal of life in a way that focuses on the environmental, economic and social health and resilience.

The Mindset

The economic growth and development is essential to the continued human well-being. However, if this is the development of natural resources damaging contaminants of water, air and soil; Destruction of forests; Flood garbage landfills; and toxic waste, the net result after all the negative instead of positive. The premise of sustainable communities to find ways to improve the quality of life and economic development, in addition to protecting the environment. Surrounding comprehensive sustainability pursuing alternative opportunities for economic development, which is not harmful side effects such as pollution, urban sprawl, congestion, and the total amount.


strategies for sustainable economic development

The use of local resources carefully – every community has resources available for local use. When a neighboring explore local resources and is committed to meet the needs of the residents of these goods, everyone benefits. This inner resourcefulness create jobs, improve the economy and reduce the negative effects. A community that works together to meet these basic needs internally usually thrives.

Creating an effective infrastructure – Urban sprawl and inefficient urban planning has a negative impact on the environment. The city is not careful design requires residents to rely heavily on shipments of personal vehicles. The environmentally conscious design alternatives more carefully around the design so that people can access your work and your shopping easier. an integral part of the available forms of public transport sustainable communities.

pursuit of Energy Efficiency – When everyone in the area, working together to conserve power, great results usually happen. Businesses and households that focus on reducing waste, pollution prevention and recycling can work together for good for everyone. These types of neighborhoods are generally experienced a decrease in various types of damage, such as air pollution and abuse of the earth.

prioritize Quality of life – Many people are increasingly aware of the importance of the quality of life in everyday life. When a community priority to this kind of lifestyle design, the residents are happier in general. Creating an attractive area with clean water and air, open green spaces and natural areas positive strategy will benefit both people and the environment.

jobs – often the pursuit of environmental awareness will create new jobs. Job creation in the field of environmental technology, waste reduction, pollution prevention and recycling it often helps to create a prosperous economy in a community.

In reality, sustainability is a process. The area will not achieve this state overnight, but it is possible to work toward that by making significant improvements. The success of the sustainable communities must be accepted by a long-term perspective, the focus of today and tomorrow. This kind of perspective helps to ensure that current and future needs of residents.

Source by Alfred Ardis

The definition of Green

The term "green" is not omni-term environmental though nothing is a tendency to substitute a "green" in the "Environment". Environmentalism subject to large, multi-unit. O E major theme of environmental protection, we will find a green, sustainable, pollution and conservation. Each subdivisions under its own huge.

The mash-up of words and concepts have lost the essential meaning Green. The environmental, green, sustainable or just blurs into that ugly green color, what happened in kindergarten, when they drain all the color one large spot. We do not know when progress is confusion and every science starts with a definition of terms.

The best definition of green indicate the health impact of what we do, living beings. So Green mainly on issues related to health. This is shown by the fact that the cleaning products were early green issues. In fact, indoor air quality is a big factor in green building. Sick building syndrome was the result of poor indoor air quality, which is the opposite of green.

Sustainability is badly transformed many applications, but basically deals with the management of our resources. This is a free issue to the green, so green and sustainable business means that the company believes that the health of the job, as well as the material needs of the business.

health in the workplace can affect cleaning products, building materials, furniture, and paint and carpet. "Gas Discharge" is a well-documented concern. The installation of new carpet, new furniture, new paint, and new tree leaves residual smoke as these items can dry out. His senses tell, because we think that something is new, clean and healthy, but it's a big mistake. The coatings and additives for paint, carpet adhesive and wood under the category of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are not good for you. If health is, their smoke can worsen your condition and may accelerate the disease. If you are a healthy, long-term exposure will wear off in time.

Think of the dust is recycled, the bacteria, viruses, dust mite faeces and balance sheets, carbon copies, and so much more. It's a wonder we're not sick all the time, except that we are generally healthy and able to live in hostile environments for long periods.

The people who are supposed to help clean up and protect our health facilities in the disinfection procedures janitors, but clean, does not mean healthy. Ammonia is harmful to spray in the window, zinc, paving the wrong people, the number of chemicals in the cleaning to the deteriorating situation.

Mold is a persistent problem in many buildings. The mold spores are never good for the workers, and may be affected by the crisis, if left untreated. Question remains latent in the HVAC system. It is true that the air in all kinds of building a "Ground Zero" any office or business. If workers had a negative influence, productivity will decline. In the afternoon headaches, occasional nausea and lethargy can be signs of unhealthy indoor air quality. Thus, while the building can be energy-efficient, and can make the water storage and recycling of garbage (sustainability issues), the building is also very un-Green, because it is unhealthy.

The Green Business League believes that the Green office starts with an understanding of a healthy office and a serious look at the components that compromise the indoor air quality. Consider the Green certified janitorial service, which also uses green cleaning products, microfiber cloths and HEPA vacuum cleaner. Do not let the untreated mold. Be aware of all paint, carpet, furniture and facilities used because a large amount of gases in the air.

Green is a mainly health-related problems that blends into the other topic of sustainability, control of pollution and conservation. By dividing up the subject properly, the plan of attack seems rather obvious. To attack the problem in a systematic way, in terms of businesses 'Going Green' at first and then moving on sustainable issues. The early disdain for the word green comes from the anti-business attitude of ultra-conservationists, the need for a target of vitriol. Green is not an anti-business concept, if properly understood. The green business is one that is a good place for living beings in the workplace, in the community and throughout the world.

Source by Michael Richmond